With the tremendous programming and tech advancements, we have two types of programming which have been of much importance to the changes in programming thus enhancing its positive impacts. These are: Object oriented programming and procedural oriented programming.
Object oriented programming is a programming language model organized around objects rather than actions and data rather than logic. Historically a program has been viewed as a logical process that takes input data and produces output data. The only challenge seen was how to write the logic, not how to define the data. Object oriented programming takes the view that what we need to care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than the logic required to manipulate them. Examples of objects include human beings, and other countables.
The first step in OOP is to identify all of the objects you want to manipulate and how they are related, and this is calleddata modeling. Onmce you have identified an object you categorize it as a class of objects and define the kind of data it contains and any other logical sequence that can manipulate it. Each logic sequence is known as a method. A real instance of a class is called object or an instance of class. The object or class is what you run in the computer. Its methods provide computer instructions as the class object characteristics provide relevant data.
The concepts used in object oriented programming provide several benefits including, the concept of data class makes it possible to define subclasses of data objects or all of the main characteristics. The concept of data classes allows a programmer to create any new data classes allow a programmer to create any new data type that is not already defined in the books.
Simula was the first object oriented programming language, while Java, C++ , visual basic .Net are just a few example of the most popular object oriented language. The Java program is designed to especially for use in distribution applications on corporate networks and the internet.
OOPSLA is the annual conference for objected oriented programming systems, languages and applications.
The second type, procedure oriented programming is where a structured method of preparing or creating programs used. It basically consists of writing a list of actions for the computer to follow, organize these instructions into groups known as functions. With procedure oriented program, a problem is broken into parts and each part is further broken into smaller parts. All these small parts are known as procedures. They are separate but work together when needed. A main program centrally controls them all. Some of the main languages here are COBOL, FORTRAN and C.
In a multi function program, many important data items are placed as global to be accessed by all functions. Each function may have its own local data. In a large program it is very difficult to identify what data is used by what function. A drawback on procedure programming is that it does not model real world problems very well, this is because functions are action oriented and do not really correspond to the elements of the problem.